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Women in Japan - Wikipedia

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Modern policy initiatives to encourage motherhood and workplace participation have had mixed results.
While a high percentage of Japanese women are college graduates, making up 77% of the part-time work force, they typically earn 27% less than their male counterparts.
Traditional expectations for married women and bingo age are cited as a barrier to full economic equality.
In the 8th century, Japan had women emperors, and in the 12th centurywomen in Japan could inherit property in their own names and gambling in new zealand age it by themselves: "Women could own property, be educated, and were allowed, if discrete, to take lovers sic ".
From the latethe status of women declined.
In the 17th century, the "", or "Learning for Women", by authorspelled out expectations for Japanese women, stating that "such is the stupidity of her character that it is incumbent on her, in every particular, to distrust herself and to obey her husband".
During theand reduced the authority of andbut at the same time the Meiji Civil Code of 1898 specifically the introduction of the system denied women and subjugated them to the will of household heads.
Afterthe legal position of women was redefined by the authorities, who included an clause in the and the revised Civil Code of 1948.
Individual rights were given precedence over obligation to family.
Women as well as men were guaranteed the right to choose spouses and occupations, to inherit and own property in their own names, and to retain custody of their children.
Modesty extended to silence in actions and conversation.
Tidiness included personal appearance and a clean home.
Courtesy, another trait, was called upon from women in domestic roles and in entertaining guests, extended to activities such as preparing and serving tea.
Lebra's traits for internal comportment of femininity included compliance; for example, were expected not to refuse their parents.
Self-reliance of women was encouraged because needy women were seen as a burden on others.
In these interviews with Japanese families, Lebra found that girls were assigned helping tasks while boys were more inclined to be left to schoolwork.
Lebra's work has been critiqued for focusing learn more here on a single economic segment of Japanese women.
Although Japan remains a socially conservative society, with relatively pronouncedJapanese women and Japanese society are quite different from the strong stereotypes that exist in foreign media or travel guides, which paint gambling in new zealand age women in Japan as 'submissive' and devoid of any self-determination.
Another strong stereotype about Japan is that women always stay in the home as housewives and that they do not participate in public life: in reality most women are employed — the of women age 15—64 is 64.
Women were given the in 1946.
This allowed them greater freedom, equality to men, and a higher status within Japanese society.
Other postwar reforms opened education institutions to women and required that women receive.
In 1986, the Equal Employment Opportunity Law took effect.
Legally, few barriers to women's equal participation in the life of society remain.
However, socially they lack opportunities in the workforce due to the long work hours and dominance in the workplace by men.
In a global survey of women in parliaments, Japan ranked 123rd out of 189 countries.
In Japan'swomen hold slightly less than 10% of seats despite a government goal for 30% of elected officials to be women by 2020.
In the lower house of the Diet, women hold only 8% of seats, with 19% in the upper house.
Less than 1% of mayors were women.
The Japanese government has expressed a will to address this problem in the 21st century of the through several focused initiatives, and a 2012 poll by the found that nearly 70% of all Japanese polled agreed that men were given preferential treatment.
Income levels between men and women in Japan are not equal; the average Japanese woman earns 40 percent less than the average man, and a tenth of management positions are held by women.
Women are often found in part time or temporary jobs.
Among women who do work, women-only unions are small in size and in relative power.
A common occupation for young women is that ofthat is, a female office worker who performs generally tasks such as serving tea and or work.
Japan has a strong tradition of women being after marriage.
When mothers do work, they often pick up part-time, low-paying jobs based on their children's or husband's schedule.
Taking care of the family and household is still seen as a predominately female role, and working women are still expected to fulfill it.
Nevertheless, in recent years the numbers of women who work has increased: in 2018, women made up 42.
Japan has an especially high proportion of women who work part-time, and a majority of those women are mothers.
In one poll, 30% of mothers who returned to work reported being victims of "maternity harassment", or "matahara".
The tradition, where mothers prepare elaborate lunches for their children to take to school, is an example of a domestic female role.
A number of government and private post-war policies have contributed to a gendered division of labor.
These include a family wage offered by corporations which subsidized health and housing subsidies, marriage bonuses and additional bonuses for each child; and pensions for wives who earn below certain incomes.
Corporate culture also plays a role; while many men are expected to socialize with their managers after long work days, women may find trouble balancing child-rearing roles with the demands of mandatory after-work social events.
Some economists suggest that a better support system for working mothers, such as a shorter daily work schedule, would allow more women to work, increasing Japan's economic growth.
To that end, in 2003, the Japanese government set a goal to have 30% of senior government roles filled by women.
In 2018, only 3.
Strains of this arrangement can be seen in contemporary Japan, where housewives are responsible for cooking, cleaning, and child-rearing, as well as balancing the household's finances.
Yet, as the number of dual-income households rises, women and men are sharing household chores, and research shows that this has led to increased satisfaction over households that divide labor in traditional ways.
A Japanese family as presented in a magazine in the 1950s Families, prior to and during therelied on a patriarchal lineage of succession, with disobedience to the male head of the household punishable by expulsion from the family unit.
Male heads of households with only daughters would adopt male heirs to succeed them, sometimes through to a daughter.
Heads of households were responsible for house finances, but could delegate to another family member or retainer employee.
Women in these households were typically subject to arranged marriages at the behest of the household's patriarch.
Married women marked themselves by blackening their teeth and shaving their eyebrows.
After the Meiji period, the head of the household was required to approve of any marriage.
Until 1908, it remained legal for husbands to murder wives for infidelity.
As late as the 1930s, arranged marriages continued, and so-called "" were thought to be rare and somewhat scandalous, especially for the husband, who would be thought "effeminate".
Article 24 of states: Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.
With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.
In the early Meiji period, many girls married at age 16; by the post-war period, it had risen to 23, and continued to rise.
Wives could not legally arrange for a divorce, but options included joining convents, such as atwhere men were not permitted to go, thus assuring a permanent separation.
Under the Meiji system, however, the law limited grounds for divorce to seven events: sterility, adultery, disobedience to the parents-in-law, loquacity, larceny, jealousy, and disease.
However, the law offered a protection for divorcees by guaranteeing a wife could not be sent away if she had nowhere else to go.
Furthermore, the law allowed a woman to request a divorce, so long as she was accompanied by a male relative and could prove desertion or imprisonment of the husband, profligacy, or mental or physical illness.
By 1898, cruelty was added to the grounds for a woman to divorce; the law also allowed divorce through mutual agreement of the husband and wife.
However, children were assumed to remain with the male head of the household.
In contemporary Japan, children are more likely to live with single mothers than single fathers; in 2018, 7.
When divorce was granted under equal measures to both sexes under the post-war constitution, divorce rates steadily increased.
The 6 month ban on remarriage for women was previously aiming to "avoid uncertainty regarding the identity gambling in new zealand age the legally presumed father of any child born in that time period".
Under article 772, presumes that after a turns washington casino age gambling, a child born 300 days after divorce is the legal child of the previous husband.
A ruling issued on December 16, 2018, the Supreme Court of Japan ruled that in light of the new 100 days before women's remarriage law, so that there is no confusion over the paternity of a child born to a woman who remarried, any child born after 200 days of remarriage is the legal child of the current husband.
The Ministry of Japan revealed the outline of an amendment for the Civil Code of Japan on February 18, 2018.
This amend shortens the women's remarriage period to 100 days and allows any woman who is not pregnant during the divorce to remarry immediately after divorce.
In 2018, the upheld the constitutionality of the law, noting that women could use their maiden names informally, and stating that it was for the legislature to decide on whether to pass new legislation on casino gambling age in spousal names.
Raising children and keeping household affairs in order were seen as women's role in the state.
Women's political and social advancement was thus tied to their role as mothers.
Today, Japanese mothers are still seen as managers of a household, including the behavior of their children.
For example, media reports often focus on the apologies of criminals' mothers.
There is continuing debate about the role women's education plays in.
Japanese women have their gambling in new zealand age child at an average age of 30.
Government policies to increase the birthrate include early education designed to develop citizens into capable parents.
Some critics of these policies believe that this emphasis on birth rate is incompatible with click to see more full recognition of women's equality in Japan.
The proportion of female researchers in Japan is click at this page />Modern education of women began in earnest during the Meiji era's modernization campaign.
The first schools for women began during this time, though education topics were highly gendered, with women learning arts of the class, such as and.
The 1871 education code established that students should be educated "without any distinction of class or sex".
Nonetheless, after 1891 students were typically segregated after third grade, and many girls did not extend their educations past middle school.
By the end of the Meiji period, there was a women's school in every prefecture in Japan, operated by a mix of government, missionary, and private interests.
By 1910, very few universities accepted women.
Graduation was not assured, as often women were pulled out of school to marry or to study "practical matters".
Notably,the first woman in Japan to earn a PhD, did so in the US, as no Meiji-era institution would allow her to receive her doctorate.
She and other women who studied abroad and returned to Japan, such as andwere among the first wave of women's educators who lead the way to the incorporation of women in Japanese academia.
After 1945, the aimed to enforce equal education between sexes; this included a recommendation in 1946 to provide compulsory co-education until the age of 16.
By the end of 1947, nearly all middle schools and more than half of high schools were co-educational.
The number per year has declined by 500,000 since 1975.
Of the 200,000 abortions performed per year, however, 10% are teenage women, a number which has risen since 1975.
In 2018, 100,000 women reported domestic violence to shelters.
Of the 10,000 entering protective custody at the shelter, nearly half arrived with children or other family members.
In Japan, domestic disputes have traditionally been seen as a result of negligence or poor support from the female partner.
A partner's outburst can therefore be a source of to the wife or mother of the man they are supposed to care for.
Because women's abuse would be detrimental to the family of the abused, legal, medical and social intervention in domestic disputes was rare.
After a spate of research during the 1990s, Japan passed the Prevention of Spousal Violence and tampa age Protection of Victims act in 2001.
The law referred to domestic violence as "a violation of the constitutional principle of equal rights between sexes".
This law established protection orders from abusive spouses and created support centers in every prefecture, but women are still reluctant to report abuse to doctors out of shame or fear that the report would be shared with the abuser.
A 2001 survey showed that many health professionals were not trained to handle domestic abuse and blamed women who sought treatment.
With nearly 21,000 reports of stalking in 2018, 90.
Anti-stalking laws in Japan were expanded in 2018 to includeafter the widely publicized 2012 murder of a young woman who had reported such harassment to police.
Stalking reports are growing at a faster rate in Japan than any other country.
Some railway companies designate though there are no penalties for men to ride in a women-only car.
The use of women-only cars in Japan has been critiqued from various perspectives.
Some suggest that the presence of the cars makes women who choose not to use them more vulnerable.
Public comment sometimes include the argument that women-only cars are a step too far in protecting women.
Some academics have argued that the cars impose the burden of social segregation to women, rather than seeking the punishment of criminals.
Another critique suggests the cars send the signal that men create a dangerous environment for women, who cannot protect themselves.
The strong market for beauty products has been connected to the value placed on self-discipline and self-improvement in Japan, where the body is mastered throughrepeated actions aspiring toward perfection, such as bowing.
In thefeminine beauty standards favored darkened teeth, some body fat, and eyebrows painted above the original which were shaved.
Beauty corporations have had a role in creating contemporary standards of beauty in Japan since the Meiji era.
For example, the Japanese cosmetics firm, published a magazine, Hannatsubaki, with beauty advice for women emphasizing hair styles and contemporary fashion.
The pre-war "" of Japan followed Western fashions as filtered through this kind of Japanese media.
Products reflect several common anxieties among Japanese women.
Multiple polls suggest that women worry about "fatness, breast size, hairiness and bust size".
The idealized figure of a Japanese woman is generally fragile and petite.
Japanese beauty ideals favor small features and narrow faces.
Big eyes are admired, especially when they have "double eyelids".
Another ideal is pale skin.
Tanned skin was historically associated with the working-class, and pale skin associated with the nobility.
Many women in Japan will take precaution to avoid the sun, and some lotions are sold to make the skin whiter.
By the 1970s, "" had emerged as a desirable aesthetic, which some scholars linked to a boom in films and that emphasized young-looking girls, or Lolitas.
While these characters typically included larger eyes, research suggests that it was not a traditional standard of beauty in Japan, preferred in medical research and described as "unsightly" by gambling in new zealand age researchers of the Edo era.
Again, femininity is a large factor; therefore,reds, bows, and frills are all found in their apparel.
Geisha are trained very seriously as skilled entertainers and are not to be confused with.
The training program starts from a young age, typically 15 years old, and can take anywhere from six months to three years.
A young geisha in training, under the age of 20, is called a.
Maiko literally "dance girl" are apprentice geisha, and this stage can last for years.
Maiko learn from their senior geisha mentor and follow them to all their engagements.
Then at around the age of 20—22, the maiko is promoted to a full-fledged geisha in a ceremony called turning of the collar.
As can be seen see more the figure, Japan has followed the trend of other Western countries of children born outside of marriage, but not to the same degree.
Further information: In Japan, the was legalized only in 1999, much later than in most Western countries.
Its use is still low, with many couples preferring.
Sexuality in Japan has developed separately from mainlandand Japan did not adopt the in which is highly valued.
However, births outside marriage remain rare in Japan.
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